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A New Shade of Green

By Sherry Listgarten

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About this blog: Climate change, despite its outsized impact on the planet, is still an abstract concept to many of us. That needs to change. My hope is that readers of this blog will develop a better understanding of how our climate is evolving a...  (More)

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The Grid Next Door

Uploaded: Jun 5, 2019
A post or two ago I wondered what you are doing about power outages. Some of you mentioned having backups such as a gas generator (including one with a large propane tank) or your own solar+battery system. Another predicted cars stuck in garages, especially with the new parking lifts. Some of you thought outages are not a big deal (“Impaired access to Safeway is more in the category of nuisance”) while others think they represent significant harm to businesses, schools, and more.

Where do our local public services stand, especially given that outages may be getting more common even as we electrify more of our lives? In this final power-related post for a while, I want to talk a bit about what our utilities are doing to help protect us against outages.

It’s pretty easy to build a reliable power system if money and land are no object. You build two of everything -- power plants, transmission lines, distribution networks. Or better yet, three. You add in some variety -- different types of plants, in different places, with wires preferably underground -- and you will be in pretty good shape. In that vein, ever since Palo Alto’s ten hour city-wide power outage in 2010 (and even before then), the city has explored adding more redundancy to our network. But it is expensive.

Money and land are not freely available. Our utilities have goals around both reliability and cost. That is what makes the evolution of “distributed energy resources” so interesting. These are essentially mini power plants that can go in homes or businesses or community spaces -- think rooftop solar and/or batteries -- to supplement the grid and shore it up when it has problems. These not only add spare capacity, they can make our power infrastructure more resilient (1) and lower the overall cost.

Back in the days of mainframe computers, if you wanted a system to be up 24x7 and you didn’t have funds for a spare computer, you were pretty much out of luck. You would just do your best to take good care of the machine and maintain it during off-hours. “Put all your eggs in one basket, and watch that basket,” as the saying goes. Then smaller systems came along, and networked systems, and suddenly we had scalable, cheaper, more resilient systems (if they were engineered well). The unit of failure was smaller and cheaper to replace. It wasn’t a total win -- there was added complexity, and the network had to be robust. But it allowed us to build fast, reliable computing power at a scale we had never seen. As one example, Google famously built its data centers full of less than reliable machines to keep costs down while building bigger and bigger search indexes.

We have started doing this to some degree with our power infrastructure. As we have decentralized and expanded our power market, moving away from monopoly utilities, we have networked our power plants. With more sharing of spare capacity and more power plants to choose from, if one plant or line goes down, another somewhere on the grid can pick up the slack. Now the state and utilities are asking if we can take this a step further, using local resources like rooftop solar and storage. Can these distributed energy resources hook into the grid and further increase reliability and decrease costs by kicking in when power is scarce or expensive or the network is congested?

In a recent opinion piece in Utility Dive, representatives of some large power consumers argue strongly in favor of this, railing against how conservative the state has been with its resource requirements. “Essentially, we build the grid like shopping mall parking lots — with enough capacity for Black Friday shoppers, but a sea of empty spaces the rest of the year. As electricity customers, we all pay the price.” They call for “a culture shift within regulatory agencies and grid operators away from reliability-at-all-costs and toward reliability-at-the-right-cost”. Those who need it most can build what they need, they suggest. “Customers that place the highest value on reliability — such as hospitals and military facilities — have never had more options to ensure that grid disturbances do not cause them harm.” But what about residents? As a commenter wrote on the preceding post on outages, this is too problematic to be left to homeowners. “I think this acceptance of power supply outages becoming the norm is a backwards philosophy and should be stopped.”

Indeed, cities and utilities are taking action. The city of Calistoga got an early taste of PG&E’s Public Safety Power Shut-Offs last year, and with more outages expected this year, they are working with Menlo Park-based Clean Coalition to see if a networked combination of batteries and local power sources (a “microgrid”) would allow their town to be more independent from the failure-prone grid. Across the country, in New Hampshire, an outage prone town with just a single incoming power line compared the cost and benefit of duplicating that line versus adding a large amount of battery storage and related incentives, and opted to move forward with the latter. The battery not only improves resilience during outages, it also helps them avoid peak pricing during normal operation. In fact, they calculate the local storage approach will both save money and reduce emissions. This idea of “resilience for free” is intriguing.

Closer to home, both Peninsula Clean Energy (PCE) of San Mateo County and the City of Palo Alto are evaluating microgrids to support emergency service hubs. PCE is funding a project with Interfaith Power and Light to identify three to five faith institutions in San Mateo County that could serve as community emergency hubs. The buildings would be equipped with solar and battery so they could serve as emergency shelters for local residents when the grid is impaired. In addition, PCE has a joint project with East Bay Community Energy in Alameda County to evaluate microgrids at critical facilities (e.g., fire and police stations) in both Alameda and San Mateo counties. Palo Alto is working with VMware to explore a microgrid at VMware headquarters in Palo Alto. This pilot project would help both city and company explore the value of these solar-plus-storage setups, while also serving as a communications hub and place to charge emergency response vehicles during a major outage. Catherine Evert, communications director for Palo Alto Utilities, says “This is still a proof of concept, but could lead to something larger in the future. We are very excited about this idea.”

Palo Alto looked at establishing their own energy storage program as recently as 2017, but the costs did not pencil out. More recent evaluations of energy backups at two city facilities -- the new public safety building and Cubberley -- led to determinations to use diesel generators. The city has, however, identified a battery storage site at the public safety facility should costs come down and space constraints improve. Palo Alto is very happy to support residential customers who are implementing solar and/or storage systems. There is a good amount of work to be done just to ensure that the local distribution lines can accommodate the increased levels of residential solar and EVs, as outlined in this 2018 report. Palo Alto sees their advisory role for customers growing, including developing this site that evaluates the costs of solar, storage, and various efficiency improvements for homes.

Jan Pepper, CEO of Peninsula Clean Energy, agrees that providing emergency shelters and backup power for critical government institutions is just a start. “Some future projects include looking at how we can help residents who need reliable power to keep medical devices operating obtain and site battery storage, or solar plus battery storage, so that they remain safe. We will also be looking at siting battery storage for homeowners in general, or in concert with their new or existing solar system, for backup power. We are interested in working with them to store the solar power produced during the day, and use it during the evening peak hours, to allow us to more closely match the county's electric demand to the electric supply.” PCE is also partnering with Clean Coalition, Stanford, and many others in an expansive “Advanced Energy Community” in southern San Mateo County, which probably deserves a blog post all its own as it develops. Its goals are not only to provide low-cost renewable backup power, but also to create local jobs and investigate potential revenue streams from the renewable power infrastructure.

The evolution of small-scale solar and batteries is leading to an interesting dynamic, in which the electric utilities become more like brokers among smaller players, much as the state’s “independent system operator” (CAISO) has become a broker among many small utilities. Thinking even more micro, consider the fact that this area has among the highest EV adoption rates in the whole country. EV batteries in aggregate are a substantial and growing power resource, and could also become an important part of the grid for supply, not just for demand. How would that look, even if the batteries were just used for resilience to outages? Home energy storage is very expensive, but an inverter for a car battery costs just a few hundred dollars. Is it worth looking into?

What do you think about this dilution of power generation and storage across ever smaller and more local players? Is it going to work out, with generally cheaper and more reliable power? Or is this mesh of participants at multiple levels going to prove too complicated to operate cleanly and reliably? The state of California is paying close attention and hasn’t entirely made up its mind yet. What are your thoughts?

Notes and References

1. This brief article distinguishes between reliability and resilience. I don’t know if it’s a generally accepted distinction, but it is an interesting one to think about. In a nutshell, a “reliable” system has few outages, while a “resilient” system can recover quickly from outages. I think of the efforts around distributed energy resources as targeting resiliency more than reliability. We are not eliminating or even reducing the sources of outage -- you could even say we are adding to them. But we are improving our response to outages by deploying many local backup systems. But it may be splitting hairs because either way the overall system becomes more reliable.

2. This writeup by the director of a microgrid for the North Bay, an area hard hit by recent fires, explains their rationale for pursuing more autonomous power.

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Comments

 +  Like this comment
Posted by Liore Milgrom-Gartner , a resident of Meadow Park,
on Jun 5, 2019 at 2:51 pm

Thanks for this great piece.

Just wanted to share that CA Interfaith Power & Light is soliciting interest from congregations wanting to pursue the solar + backup battery through June 30. Please ping me if interested to learn more: Liore at interfaithpower.org.


 +  Like this comment
Posted by Sherry Listgarten, a Mountain View Online blogger,
on Jun 5, 2019 at 3:54 pm

Sherry Listgarten is a registered user.

@Liore -- Thanks for the comment, and for your organization's dedication to addressing climate change! I've also added a link to your organization inline in the blog post.


 +  Like this comment
Posted by Staying Young Through Kids, a resident of Old Palo Alto,
on Jun 6, 2019 at 9:34 am

Staying Young Through Kids is a registered user.

Sherry...I really appreciate your column and analysis of these issues. You bring an inquisitive and pragmatic sensibility to your posts. Your thoughts and arguments are backed up with data, empirical evidence, and a request for (welcomed) wiki-knowledge from your readers. Your understanding of the "unique" local perspectives is also appreciated.

A question...Any idea what will happen with an electrified Caltrain when we suffer power outages on a regional or local scale anywhere along the line? Will the entire system be centrally powered? Is there a backup system? Could local power outages anywhere along the line impact the flow of train traffic?

Thanks again for being brave enough to offer your perspective!


 +  Like this comment
Posted by Sherry Listgarten, a Mountain View Online blogger,
on Jun 6, 2019 at 3:21 pm

Sherry Listgarten is a registered user.

@Staying -- Glad you like the blog! And that is a great question. From what I can tell, the trains do not operate during an outage. Someone asked this question way back in 2009, and the 2009 EIR response is as follows (you can search the EIR for "outage"): "Regarding the reliability of diesel versus electric trains, it is true that the electric trains could be shut down during a power outage, however, each traction power facility would have two sources of electricity supply and would be tapping into the highly reliable 115 kV high voltage utility transmission network, rather than into one of the less reliable, lower voltage distribution systems, and outages on the high voltage network are extremely rare. The analysis presented in EA/EIR Section 3.10 does address the sources and availability of electrical power for Caltrain, the California energy crisis, ongoing and planned improvements and expansions of energy generation and distribution capabilities, and other efforts to ensure adequate electrical energy supplies for the foreseeable future. Moreover, Caltrain Electrification would result in a net savings of propulsion energy. It should be noted that diesel trains have not proven themselves to be trouble-free. They are subject to mechanical breakdowns that occur much more frequently than the once every few years that has been the frequency of past brown-outs."

This response talks both about outages and power-scarcity situations (brown-outs). The latter do not generally occur. (AFAIK the last one was in 2001, before the state added many protections). They claim that outages on the transmission lines (the high voltage ones) are "extremely rare". FWIW, I think we just had one this morning (the seagull). I think the mylar balloon incidents were also on these lines. So not sure about "extremely rare". Would be nice to see data, and to learn more about what parts of the electric supply are duplicated. I'll see if Caltrain will answer.

Thanks for the great question.

BTW, the final EIR is here, and I can't find much there. They say that PG&E can handle the power load. In the one question on how outages will impact the trains, the response is "The comment is correct that if the OCS wires are disrupted or if there are disruptions to the PG&E electrical supply, there will not be power to run the trains. The system is being designed to be resilient to high winds, tree removal is proposed to avoid the potential for trees falling on the wires, and geotechnical concerns related to earthquakes and liquefactions are being addressed during design per Mitigation Measure GEO-1. The likely frequency of power outages is expected to quite low." So again they say that power outages won't happen often. Ironically, both of these EIRs were done before PG&E announced its "Public Safety Power Shutoff" program. So who knows...


 +  Like this comment
Posted by musical, a resident of Palo Verde,
on Jun 7, 2019 at 1:36 pm

"Given that outages may be getting more common," a timely predicate.

3,000 customers affected by outage in south Palo Alto -- Web Link


 +  Like this comment
Posted by Curmudgeon, a resident of Downtown North,
on Jun 7, 2019 at 4:23 pm

"each traction power facility would have two sources of electricity supply and would be tapping into the highly reliable 115 kV high voltage utility transmission network"

That's very interesting. It's the same network that feeds Palo Alto's grid gateway, and Palo Alto has toyed with tapping into it at a second feed point to avoid single-point failures like the 2010 plane collision. If Caltrain is running a 115k feeder to the tracks, does Palo Alto plan to try to piggyback onto it?


 +  Like this comment
Posted by Sherry Listgarten, a Mountain View Online blogger,
on Jun 7, 2019 at 4:48 pm

Sherry Listgarten is a registered user.

@Staying -- Okay, I heard back from CalTrain. In a nutshell, they are building two traction power facilities for the rail corridor, one in South San Francisco and one in San Jose. If one of those becomes unavailable, there will still be reduced service. That may mean either fewer trains or slower trains, it would depend on usage. Trains should be able to run the full length of the corridor. If both stations go out (a massive power outage), then some diesel locomotives would be on hand to move trains.

@Musical -- But I didn't have errant seagulls in mind! Interesting to think about the impact, though. This most recent outage seemed more on the "inconvenience" side of things, would you agree? If there were (say) six of those per year, how much would you want the city to invest to fix them?

@Curmudgeon -- These new stations will be in SSF and in SJ, so I'm not sure what you suggest is feasible. Good question, though.


 +  Like this comment
Posted by musical, a resident of Palo Verde,
on Jun 8, 2019 at 3:55 am

Yes, minor inconvenience though not sure whether my neighborhood was affected or I simply slept through it. Here at my desktop iMac a small old fashioned APC-brand uninterruptible power supply (lead-acid battery UPS) allows me a few minutes to save files and shut down gracefully. I am also well stocked with LED flashlights and more batteries from Costco than I will ever need.

"If there were (say) six of those per year..." April 1 Midtown, Feb 23 Ventura, January 16 Miranda, Dec 6 Ventura, Dec 3 Duveneck/St Francis, Dec 1 South Palo Alto, Oct 2 Midtown, Sept 25 Downtown, Aug 23 College Terrace, Aug 9 University Terrace, July 2 Midtown/Old Palo Alto, June 2 Greenmeadow -- okay, I've gone back a year without being sufficiently inconvenienced to go deeper into debt for higher taxes or utility rates.


 +  Like this comment
Posted by Curmudgeon, a resident of Downtown North,
on Jun 8, 2019 at 12:37 pm

"These new stations will be in SSF and in SJ, so I'm not sure what you suggest is feasible."

Nope.


 +   1 person likes this
Posted by musical, a resident of Palo Verde,
on Jun 10, 2019 at 3:11 pm

... another minor inconvenience, so far. (Monday 3pm on Back-up power)


 +  Like this comment
Posted by Sherry Listgarten, a Mountain View Online blogger,
on Jun 10, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Sherry Listgarten is a registered user.

Well, hottest time of the day on a 99 degree day. Might be more than that. Hopefully they are right that they can fix it quickly. Imagine if all the libraries, movie theaters, shopping centers got hot. It'd be great if the common places that people go to on hot days had their own independent solar/battery backup power. I bet it is very common in a few decades if not sooner.



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